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Advances in understanding, theory and measurement must necessarily proceed hand in hand. A companion article in this publication sets forth the urgent need for new theory in economics.
This article sets forth the complementary need for new measures. The stakes are high and the choice is ours. The challenge is to derive more appropriate indicators to reflect real, sustainable economic welfare, social development and human wellbeing.
The attributes that have made GDP so successful are often overlooked — it provides clear objectives for policy and decision-making. The index is applied to assess the economic performance of select countries from Tools and Measures Human beings are distinguished from other life forms by their unique ability to fashion tools which extend our powers of consciousness beyond the reach of our senses and our powers of execution beyond the limits of strength, endurance, space and time imposed by our physical bodies.
Tools are an instrument for social evolution. Language is a tool which enables us to formulate original ideas, communicate our inmost thoughts and feelings, record events for posterity, transmit knowledge down through the ages, and exchange ideas over vast expanses of time and space.
The efficiency of our tools is an index of our social development. Measurement is another remarkable human ability.
Modern medicine could not exist without the thermometer, stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and glucometer, along with measures for blood cell count, hemoglobin, cholesterol, and countless other metrics.
Today every food ingredient is carefully measured for its exact nutritional content. It is both a tool and a measure. But unlike other measures that are confined to measuring a single dimension or quality, money has the capacity of assigning value to almost anything material or immaterial — physical objects, human labor, social status, information, obedience, loyalty and sometimes even love.
Coinage enabled ancient kingdoms to become military and economic powers, because it facilitated standardized valuation of products and services for the financing and maintenance of huge armies.
The concept of zero was unknown to the Greeks and Romans. Developed independently in India and Mexico, it reached Europe via Arabia only in the 10th century. One need only try adding and multiplying Roman numerals to realize how greatly the introduction of Hindu-Arabic numerals, the zero, and the decimal place enhanced the capacity for accounting and the growth of trade.
Combined with double-entry bookkeeping, they spurred the commercial revolution in 13th century Italy, facilitating the precise calculation of capital and profit. The Domesday Book is a record of the first known numerical census conducted by William I of England in to identify arable lands, livestock, fisheries and other sources of national wealth as a basis for improved tax collection.
The first US census was conducted in Today economics employs a wide range of indispensable measuring tools, including GDP, the consumer price index, interest rate, money supply, exchange rate and the unemployment rate.
While the general public may regard these tools as accurate measures of economic reality, economists recognize that they are in fact only rough, approximate indicators designed to reflect economic reality rather than accurately measure it.
Right measurement is a powerful instrument for social progress, which is why efforts are constantly being made to improve their power and precision.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION ON CATTLE AND SHEEP FARMING IN THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA by BUSISIWE MANDLENI Submitted in accordance with . Facts, figures and findings from application of Toxkit microbiotests are reported in a large number of publications, reports and presentations at scientific symposia and workshops. Get Full Text in PDF. Table of Contents. Introduction; Tools and Measures; Measures of National Income; Need for New Theory; Measures and Indicators; Characteristics of a Successful Indicator.
The atomic clock has replaced the sundial, hourglass and pendulum. DNA fingerprinting has largely replaced hand fingerprinting as a precise means for identifying human beings. Global satellite navigation has made the chronometer obsolete.
The 20th century has been aptly described as The First Measured Century in recognition of the enormous recent strides in harnessing the power of measurement.
Today humanity pursues a common quest for higher standards of living, greater economic security, sustainable development, higher levels of welfare and well-being. For decades, the very intensity of the pursuit for a better life obscured the inadequacy of our conceptions and our instruments for achieving it.
But in recent decades we are compelled by social, economic and environmental challenges to seek more precise definitions of what we mean by these terms and more exact tools for measuring our progress toward achieving them.
Social and economic measures are inseparable from political objectives and public policy.
It is not merely scientific precision that we are after, but more powerful instruments for achieving human objectives.An outline is a tool used to organize written ideas about a topic or thesis into a logical order.
Outlines arrange major topics, subtopics, and supporting details. Get Full Text in PDF. Table of Contents. Introduction; Tools and Measures; Measures of National Income; Need for New Theory; Measures and Indicators; Characteristics of a Successful Indicator.
The trapping of the sun’s warmth in a planet’s lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet’s surface Actually, the greenhouse effect would still operate even if the atmosphere absorbed.
The ozone layer is one of the most important source of protection that exists on Earth.
It is a region of the stratosphere containing a high concentration of ozone, and it prevents a great amount of ultraviolet and other high-energy radiation from penetrating to the earth's surface.
The ozone layer 3/5(5).
Thesis Statement For Ozone Depletion. areas phd thesis: Topics by nbsp; (e. gchange in ozone depletion chemicalsargue that any depletion of the ozone layer whichmore-out statement makesGentlemen for not responding CFC Destruction of Ozone – Major Cause of Recent Global Warming!
Environmental, Emissions and nbsp; Energy Central is a . September 14, "Global Warming" is a psychological operation, a "psyops", to condition the public to believe that we are going to be in a lot of trouble in the near future if we don't take steps "X,Y, & Z", and do it quickly.
Those "steps" are what the Illuminati want us to follow so they can further consolidate their control over our lives-and still make a ton of money in the process.