Ninth and last crusade —72 Nov Edward I crowned on his return from the Crusades Apr
World War I military leaders This page contains brief biographical summaries of some significant World War I military leaders.
Click or tap a link to open or close profiles. These profiles have been written by Alpha History authors. When the Ottomans entered World War I in lateKemal, by now a colonel, was tasked with defending the Dardanelles from a probable Allied landing.
The victory at Gallipoli revived Ottoman hopes of keeping the empire together, while Kemal was promoted and given more significant command postings.
Between and he served against the Russians in the Caucasus, against British imperial forces in Palestine and as an envoy to Germany. By Kemal was convinced that the Allies would win the war, so his interests turned towards securing the future of his homeland. A lifelong soldier, the Prussian-born Falkenhayn served in colonial China during the Boxer Rebellion; after this he returned to Germany and worked as a staff officer, involved in military planning and logistics.
Like others of his generation, Falkenhayn was a militarist who believed that a great European war was inevitable and that Germany should prepare accordingly.
Recognising the great difficulties along the Western Front, Falkenhayn instead focused in the east, where he hoped to force Russia to sign a separate armistice. He also initiated the assault against French positions at Verdun, the failure of this campaign leading to his replacement in August Falkenhayn remained in the war, serving as a commander in eastern Europe and the Middle East.
Historians consider Falkenhayn to be a true figure of the old regime: Marshal Ferdinand Foch France Marshal Ferdinand Foch was an important French general, perhaps best known for repelling German advances in both and Born in southern France near the Spanish border, Foch served in the Franco-Prussian War and remained in the army after the French defeat.
Shortly after the outbreak of the war, Foch was given command of the Ninth Army which halted the German Schlieffen advance at the first Battle of the Marne. He returned to active service in France inwhen he coordinated a successful response to the German Spring Offensive. Foch was later hailed as a war hero and showered with honours and titles, however historians have been more sanguine about both his strategic approach and his effectiveness.
Born into a military family, French enlisted in the Royal Navy but an abject fear of heights forced his transfer into the army.
French also served as a major-general in the Second Boer War in South Africa, where he was commended for his decisive but calm leadership. He was later promoted to full general, then to field marshal, and contributed to British military reforms and organisation prior to the outbreak of World War I.
In he was appointed commander of the British Expeditionary Force in northern France. French proved unsuited to this mission. At first thinking the war would be over within months, on arriving in Europe he became despondent and pessimistic about the chances of victory.
Sir John had little confidence in either French generals or their men and was reluctant to commit British forces to French-planned operations.
Recalled to England, French was given the less important task of organising home defence. Apart from providing occasional advice to the government, he played no further part in the war on the Western Front.
Ridiculed and parodied in film and television, Haig is often portrayed as elitist and incompetent, though neither was true. Born into an affluent family, Haig had from a young age set his sights on a military career.
He saw service in the Sudan, the Boer War and a colonial regiment in India, before returning to England in He was viewed as a specialist in military training, discipline and battlefield strategies; he also served briefly as aide-de-camp to King George V.
By the outbreak of the war Haig was a lieutenant-general; he was given command of forces at Mons and Ypres, where he acquitted himself well. By the end of Haig was given command of the entire British Expeditionary Force, and ordered to begin planning a major offensive at the Somme River for the summer of It is the Battle of the Somme for which Haig is best known, particularly its disastrous opening day.
Despite meticulous planning and preparation, and one of the longest and most ferocious artillery barrages of the war, almost 20, British soldiers were killed, making it the worst single day in British military history.The United Kingdom does not have a codified mtb15.comr, a number of texts are considered to be constitutional, such that the "constitution of the United Kingdom" or "British constitution" may refer to a number of historical and momentous laws and principles that make up the country's body mtb15.com the term "UK constitution" is sometimes said to refer to an "unwritten" or.
A good historical essay that shows how it was Japan and Bose, and not Gandhi who drove the British out of India. Not Gandhi but Japan Kicked out Britain from India. and with it the INA, popular support for the INA finally precipitated British withdrawal from India,” writes Kalyan Kumar Ghosh in History of the Indian National Army.
Shooting The Odds: Dr. Shipko is a psychiatrist in private practice in Pasadena, CA and author of Surviving Panic Disorder and Xanax mtb15.com from his clinical experience, his blog concerns adverse effects of SSRI antidepressants, particularly withdrawal related effects.
The British Raj (/ r ɑː dʒ /; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between and The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India.
The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United. Start studying Lit: Quit India by Gandhi.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. encouraged people to withdraw from the British government-sponsored schools, police services, the courts, and the military and the civil service.
Imaginary Homelands was an essay written by who? As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from mtb15.com