Clearly, the global pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a major consolidation phase.
History[ edit ] Apothecary vessel for storage of opium as a pharmaceutical, Germany, 18th or 19th century The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human use; the oldest known seeds date back to more than BCE in the Neolithic age  with purposes such as food, anaestheticsand ritual.
Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, suppositories, medical poulticesand as a combination with hemlock for suicide. Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a precisely controlled dosage.
Numerous finds of P. Opium production continued under the Babylonians and Egyptians. Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people quickly and painlessly to death, but it was also used in medicine.
Spongia somniferasponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery. By BCE, opium was cultivated on Cypruswhere surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, and opium was cultivated, traded, and smoked.
Poppies also frequently adorned statues of ApolloAsklepiosPlutoDemeterAphroditeKybele and Isissymbolizing nocturnal oblivion.
Some Muslims believe hadithssuch as in Sahih Bukhariprohibits every intoxicating substance, though the use of intoxicants in medicine has been widely permitted by scholars. The text lists medicinal effects of opium, such as analgesia, hypnosis, antitussive effects, gastrointestinal effects, cognitive effects, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbances, and sexual dysfunction.
It also refers to opium's potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. In the s, laudanum was recommended for pain, sleeplessness, and diarrhea by Thomas Sydenham the renowned "father of English medicine" or "English Hippocrates", to whom is attributed the quote, "Among the remedies which it has pleased Almighty God to give to man to relieve his sufferings, none is so universal and so efficacious as opium.
Subsequently, laudanum became the basis of many popular patent medicines of the 19th century. Compared to other chemicals available to 18th century regular physicians, opium was a benign alternative to the arsenics, mercuries, or emetics, and it was remarkably successful in alleviating a wide range of ailments.
Due to the constipation often produced by the consumption of opium, it was one of the most effective treatments for cholera, dysentery, and diarrhea.
As a cough suppressant, opium was used to treat bronchitis, tuberculosis, and other respiratory illnesses.
Opium was additionally prescribed for rheumatism and insomnia. Due to its sedative and tranquilizing properties, it was used to quiet the minds of those with psychosis, help with people who were considered insane, and also to help treat patients with insomnia.
US president William Henry Harrison was treated with opium inand in the American Civil Warthe Union Army usedlb 80, kg of opium tincture and powder and aboutopium pills. Betweenandopiate addicts lived in the United States in the late 19th century and between two-thirds and three-quarters of these addicts were women.
George Beard in proposed his theory of neurastheniaa hereditary nervous system deficiency that could predispose an individual to addiction. Neurasthenia was increasingly tied in medical rhetoric to the "nervous exhaustion" suffered by many a white-collar worker in the increasingly hectic and industrialized U.
Recreational use in Europe, the Middle East and the US 11th to 19th centuries [ edit ] An artist's view of an Ottoman opium seller Soldiers returning home from the Crusades in the eleventh century brought opium with them.
Ottoman and European testimonies confirm that from the 16th to the 19th centuries Anatolian opium was eaten in Constantinople as much as it was exported to Europe.
In the book, it is not Ottoman, nor Chinese, addicts about whom he writes, but English opium users:A dissociative drug developed as an intravenous anesthetic that has been discontinued due to serious adverse effects. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel detached from reality.
Smoking heroin refers to vaporizing it to inhale the resulting fumes, rather than burning and inhaling the smoke. It is commonly smoked in glass pipes made from glassblown Pyrex tubes and light bulbs.
In Poland, Dr.
M. Rostafinski used the drug to treat a small group of epileptic patients. In the United States, Dr. Charles Savage reported a particular lack of success in using LSD to treat 15 patients suffering from depression.
Not content with its own rich product pipeline, Pfizer entered into a series of partnerships whereby it comarketed drugs developed by smaller pharmaceutical firms, firms that were attracted by Pfizer's powerful sales force.
Not content with its own rich product pipeline, Pfizer entered into a series of partnerships whereby it comarketed drugs developed by smaller pharmaceutical firms, firms that were attracted by Pfizer's powerful sales force. In Poland, Dr. M. Rostafinski used the drug to treat a small group of epileptic patients. In the United States, Dr. Charles Savage reported a particular lack of success in using LSD to treat 15 patients suffering from depression. In England, the home director of the China Inland Mission, Benjamin Broomhall, was an active opponent of the opium trade, writing two books to promote the banning of opium smoking: The Truth about Opium Smoking and The Chinese Opium Smoker.
Beyond their strong work ethic, many Chinese brought something else to America: a habit of smoking opium. (An activity introduced to the Chinese by the British, who ran a massive and lucrative smuggling trade bringing opium from India into China after it was outlawed in the late s.
In the midst of an M&A frenzy in the global pharmaceutical industry, Wharton experts advise companies to keep a watchful eye on post-merger integration. The Strategy Behind the Pharma M&A Rush.